Just a little tip I use for calculating % to hit my hand... the 4/2 rule.
Lets say you have 78 and the flop is 5 6 J . Now, count your outs. You have four 4s and four 9s for your straight. That is a total of 8 outs to hit your hand. Now, multiple 8 by 4 to get 32%. You have appx 32% to improve your hand by the river. Now lets say the turn is a meisly 2. You still have 8 outs to hit your hand, but only 1 card to come, so multiple your 8 outs by only 2 this time (hence 4/2 rule) to get 16% to hit your straight with 1 card to come. If the turn card had been a 2 instead, you would have picked up 9 more outs for the flush, for a total of 17. Multiple 17 by 2 to get a 34% chance to hit your hand by the river.
This is a pretty close estimate that you will hit your hand and is very easy to calculate at the table. The actual % that you will outdraw a hand like AJ on this flop would be 36.9%, and if the turn was 2 if would be 34.1%.
What you can take from this is if you estimate about a 35% chance to hit your hand, you should be getting about 3:1 (it's actually like 2.86:1) on your money for the call. If the pot was 200, and your opponent bets 50 into you, you would have to call 50 to win 250 if you hit your hand, giving you 5:1 odds. But, if villian bets 200 into a 200 pot, you would have to call 200 to win 400, 2:1 on your money. Your odds are now incorrect to hit your hand. (Of course there is so much more to think about in poker than just drawing odds and some reasons you can justify calling without odds - which is why poker is so great!)
Note that this doesn't mean you have 32% to win the hand, only to improve your hand. If someone has a higher flush draw, or higher straight draw, your outs might not be totally clean. This is just a really rough way to estimate odds and justify a call.
Now after saying all that ramble, odds really aren't what make poker go round. It is nice to know the math and all, but I would work on fundamentals before you start working on implieds odds/chasing draws. Not saying you already don't have these down, but it is just something that I did. Don't turn into a calling station!
I'm open to any criticism/discussion.
Also since you're looking for direction to learn more, not sure if you came across this article on FTR: http://www.flopturnriver.com/start_pot_odds.html - Explained better than my jumbled post.